Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT)

    About the Treatment

    Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) can be classified in layman terms as the procedure of delivering high dose chemotherapy and in some cases, whole body radiotherapy. Bone marrow is a soft spongy substance inside a person's bone that produces the blood cells. The bone marrow transplant or procedure is followed to eliminate few types of cancers like myeloma, leukaemia, and lymphoma.

  • A set of tests and procedures to assess your health status is done.
  • A central line is placed in your chest or neck to infuse the transplanted stem cells, medications and blood products into your body.
  • Your transplant team will decide whether an autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplant is needed for you.
  • In the case of autologous stem cell transplant, you'll undergo a procedure called apheresis to collect blood stem cells.
  • During apheresis, blood is drawn from a major vein and circulated through a machine which separates your blood into different sections and stem cells. The stem cells are collected and frozen for future use in the transplant. The blood that remains at the end is injected back into the body.
  • If an allogeneic stem cell transplant is planned, then a donor is needed. Stem cells are gathered from donor, s blood or bone marrow. This process is often called a stem cell harvest or bone marrow harvest.
  • Once all tests are over, a process known as conditioning is done. During conditioning chemotherapy and possibly radiation is done to destroy cancer cells, suppress your active immune system & prepare your bone marrow for the transplant.
  • After conditioning, the stem cell transplant can take place.

  • You will be accommodated in a special bone marrow transplant unit in the centre to limit your chance of getting an infection.
  • On the day of your bone marrow transplant, called day zero, stem cells are injected through a central line using a process commonly known as infusion.
  • The transplanted stem cells make their way to your bone marrow, where they begin creating new blood cells.
  • Within few weeks, new blood cells are produced, and blood count will gradually recover.
  • You'll also likely be given IV fluids (hydration) before and after your transplant to get rid of the preservative.
  • When the new stem cells enter your bloodstream, they begin to interact with your bone marrow. With time, they multiply and begin to make new, healthy blood cells. This process is called engraftment.

  • After your stem cell transplant, you will remain under close medical observation.
  • The health care team will minutely monitor your blood count and vital signs.
  • To monitor your condition, blood and other tests will be taken.
  • Medicines might be required to manage complications & prevent or treat infections.

  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a complication in which the donor cells attack your body
  • Graft failure, which means that the new cells do not settle into the body and start producing stem cells
  • Infections
  • Cataracts
  • Infertility
  • New cancers
  • Anaemia
  • Bleeding in the intestines, lungs, brain, and other areas of the body
  • Damage to the kidneys, liver, lungs, and heart
  • Development of clotting in the small veins of the liver
  • Delayed growth in children who receive a bone marrow transplant
  • Early menopause
  • Inflammation and soreness of the mouth, throat, oesophagus, and stomach called mucositis
  • Pain
  • Stomach problems, including diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting
  • The donor is generally under minimal risk because only a small amount of the bone marrow is removed from donor, s body.

Dr. Jyoti Shanker Raychaudhuri

Dr. Jyoti Shanker Raychaudhuri

Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi

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Dr. P K Das

Dr. P K Das

Senior Consultant

Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi

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Dr. Shishir Seth

Dr. Shishir Seth

Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi

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