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TKR: Total Knee Replacement Surgery

    About the Treatment

    Total knee replacement can be classified as the process of replacing the diseased knee joint using an artificial material through a surgical process. The hinge joint assisting in the smooth motion of the point that connects the thighs and the lower leg is termed as the knee. At the knee joint, the thighbone adjoins the large bone of the lower leg.

  • Complete physical examination of the affected area of the bone and its surroundings.
  • To check seriousness of the disease ability to move the limb is tested.
  • The affected knee will be evaluated using X-ray studies which will help the surgeon to determine the level of damage to the joint and any abnormalities in joint shape and structure.
  • Blood tests will be done to rule out any chances of infection. If any infection is detected, then treatment is given to cure the infection before the surgery is scheduled.
  • All sorts of medication consumed by the patient will be reviewed. Blood-thinning and anti-inflammatory medications like aspirin may have to be adjusted or discontinued before the surgery.
  • Any condition of hyper-allergy or uncontrollable blood loss should be informed to the doctor before surgery.
  • Extra weight loss helps you speed up the process of recovery.

  • Knee replacement surgery lasts about 2 to 3 hours.
  • After completing all the necessary preparations for surgery, you will be shifted to operation theatre
  • The procedure is performed under general or spinal anesthesia. Vital signs like heart rate, blood oxygen level, blood pressure and breathing will be regularly monitored.
  • An incision is made by the surgeon across the front the knee to get access to the kneecap. In the regular knee replacement, the incision is usually about 8 to 10 inches long. In minimally invasive knee surgery, the incision is usually about 4 to 6 inches long.
  • The kneecap is initially opened. Once the knee is open, the surgeon rotates the patella outside the knee area to have clear view of the surgical site.
  • The first bone to be resurfaced will be the femur, commonly known as the thighbone. After the bone is exposed, the surgeon will carefully make precise cuts with the help of special instruments. The defected bone and cartilage is cut from the end of the femur and resurfaced to fit the first segment of the artificial knee, the femoral component.
  • The surgeon attaches the metal femoral component to the end of your femur and uses bone cement to seal it into place.
  • The next bone is the tibia which is resurfaced. The surgeon eliminates the defected bone and cartilage from the top area of the tibia and then carves the bone to fit the metal & plastic tibial components.
  • The bottom section of the implant, termed as the tibial tray, is fitted to the tibia and bone cement is used to secure it in the right place. Once the tray is fixed in the right place, the surgeon will fasten a medical-grade polyethylene insert to fit between the tibial tray and the femoral component. These insertions act just like some buffer. This infusion will provide support for your body as you bend and flex your knee.
  • Before bringing the patella to its normal position, the surgeon might require to flatten the patella and fix it with an additional plastic component to ensure a proper connect with the rest of the implant. The plastic piece, if required, is cemented to the underlying bone.
  • In most cases, cemented prosthesis, which attaches to the bone with a surgical cement, is used as it is more reliable than un-cemented prosthesis that attaches to the bone surface using a porous surface.
  • The surgeon will flex the knee to make sure that the implant is working correctly, and that the alignment, sizing, and positioning is suitable.
  • The surgeon will close the incision with stitches or staples, and then bandage it and prepare you for recovery.

  • The average hospital stay after the surgery would be 3 to 4 days.
  • You will be required to do regular exercise and move the knee joint area.
  • The physiotherapist observes the muscle and nerve control development at the new joint.
  • The operated area needs to be kept clean & protected from infection
  • Physiotherapy and medication should be continued as advised by surgeon
  • Any untoward incident like fever, redness, or pain at or near the incision point must be reported to the doctor immediately.
  • Other post-operative care like use of cane or walker to assist in walking & use handrails while climbing stairs should be followed.
  • Normal routine with minimal assistance can be resumed within 4 to 6 weeks post surgery.
  • However, activities like jogging, jumping, skipping or sports activities should be minimized.

  • Excessive internal bleeding or at incision point
  • Infection at the incision
  • The occurrence of blood clots in lungs (pulmonary embolism) or legs
  • Loosening or wearing out of the prosthesis
  • Fracture because of wrong placement or movement at the knee joint
  • Chronic pain and stiffness in the operated area
  • The knee joint might fail to perform in case of wrong placements. This condition will require another surgery
  • Nerves and blood vessels around the inspected or operated area might be damaged during the operation, and this shall lead to numbness and weakness in the knee area.
  • The risks of anaesthesia include potential heart, lung, kidney, and liver damage

Relihealth believes in delivering quality healthcare to its patients. Our global network of renowned hospitals and doctors allow us to provide the patients cost estimates from three best hospitals for their treatment. Moreover, our highly experienced in-house panel of doctors provide free second opinion in case the patients have some doubts or concerns. We are associated to some of the most renowned orthopaedic surgeons who have been awarded for their excellent surgical outcomes and extensive contribution in the field of Joint Replacement. Our efforts are directed towards arranging high end minimally invasive joint replacement surgeries at an economical cost which in turn makes us a preferred healthcare consultant in India.

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